History

The establishment of Addis Ababa heralded the beginning of a new era in the history of Ethiopia. Emperor Menelik ll, who aspired to create and gradually build a strong and modern Ethiopia, founded his capital on the site occupied by his forebears.

It had been prophesied that Minilik would build his capital at the top of Entoto Mountain about eight kilometers north of Filwuha – the hot spring down below. He camped there and returned to it after his various national campaigns. Strategic significance of the spot was highly considered in the emperor’s choice of the site which like Ankobar, his former site, was in an imposing position overlooking verdant plains. In additional, the site was on the watershed of the Blue Nile and was, therefore, convenient for easy access to most of the provinces.

Emperor Minilik and Empress Taytu, his consort, meanwhile was being attracted south ward by the hot springs of Filwuha where they often spent many days, accompanied by their court. They chose to make this area of lower elevation their capital in no time. In those days, the temperature at Entoto was exceedingly cold to boot.

Sub Cities

Sub CitiesAreaPopulationDensity
Addis Ketema7.41271,64436,659.1
Akaki Kality118.08195,2731,653.7
Arada9.91225,99923,000
Bole122.08328,9002,694.1
Gullele30.18284,8659,438.9
Kirkos14.62235,44116,104
Kolefe Keranio61.25546,2197,448.5
Lideta9.18214,76923,000
Nifas Silk-Lafto68.30335,7404,915.7
Yeka85.46337,5753950.1
Lemi KuraN/AN/AN/A
NameSubCityTitle
Ato Yitayal DejeneAddis Ketemaዋና ሥ/አስፈፃሚ
Ato Assefa TolaAddis Ketemaፓርቲ ጽ/ቤት ኃላፊ
Mrs. Hiwot GugsaAddis Ketemaም/ዋና ሥ/አስፈፃሚ
Ato Jemal RediKirkosዋና ሥ/አስፈፃሚ
Ato Asegdew HailegeorgisKirkosፓርቲ ጽ/ቤት ኃላፊ
Ato Tamene AdugnaKirkosም/ዋና ሥ/አስፈፃሚ
Ato Mekonnen AmbayeBoleዋና ሥ/አስፈፃሚ
Mrs. Tigist DejeneBoleፓርቲ ጽ/ቤት ኃላፊ
Ato Bereket TesemaBoleም/ዋና ሥ/አስፈፃሚ
Ato Abawe YohannesGulelleዋና ሥ/አስፈፃሚ
Ato Sisay EndaleGulelleፓርቲ ጽ/ቤት ኃላፊ
Ato Ashenafi DejeneGulelleም/ዋና ሥ/አስፈፃሚ
Mrs. Fetiya MohammedAkakiዋና ሥ/አስፈፃሚ
Ato Musema JemalAkakiፓርቲ ጽ/ቤት ኃላፊ
Ato Girmachew AbateAkakiም/ዋና ሥ/አስፈፃሚ
Mrs. Netsanet DabaNifas Silk Laphtoዋና ሥ/አስፈፃሚ
Ato Zemen DesalegneNifas Silk Laphtoፓርቲ ጽ/ቤት ኃላፊ
Ato Tegegne DinknehNifas Silk Laphtoም/ዋና ሥ/አስፈፃሚ
Ato Elias MohammedLemi Kuraዋና ሥ/አስፈፃሚ
Ato Wondayehu DejeneLemi Kuraፓርቲ ጽ/ቤት ኃላፊ
Ato Birhanu SileamelakLemi Kuraም/ዋና ሥ/አስፈፃሚ
Mrs. Shitaye MohammedLidetaዋና ሥ/አስፈፃሚ
Ato Andarge TewabeLidetaፓርቲ ጽ/ቤት ኃላፊ
Ato Tarekegne GemechuLidetaም/ዋና ሥ/አስፈፃሚ
Ato Muket TarekegnKolfe Keranyoዋና ሥ/አስፈፃሚ
Ato Birhanu AberaKolfe Keranyoፓርቲ ጽ/ቤት ኃላፊ
Ato Muluken YohannesKolfe Keranyoም/ዋና ሥ/አስፈፃሚ
Ato Assfaw TekeleYekaዋና ሥ/አስፈፃሚ
Ato Feyissa FelekeYekaፓርቲ ጽ/ቤት ኃላፊ
Ato Abera AferashYekaም/ዋና ሥ/አስፈፃሚ
Dr. HanaAradaዋና ሥ/አስፈፃሚ
Ato Mideksa KebedeAradaፓርቲ ጽ/ቤት ኃላፊ
Ato Mubarik KemalAradaም/ዋና ሥ/አስፈፃሚ
According to the 2007 national census, 98.64% of the housing units of Addis Ababa had access to safe drinking water, while 14.9% had flush toilets, 70.7% pit toilets (both ventilated and unventilated), and 14.3% had no toilet facilities.In 2014, there were 63 public toilets in the city, with plans to build more.[45] Values for other reported common indicators of the standard of living for Addis Ababa as of 2005 include the following: 0.1% of the inhabitants fall into the lowest wealth quintile; adult literacy for men is 93.6% and for women 79.95%, the highest in the nation for both sexes; and the civic infant mortality rate is 45 infant deaths per 1,000 live births, which is less than the nationwide average of 77; at least half of these deaths occurred in the infants’ first month of life.
The economic activities in Addis Ababa are diverse. According to official statistics from the federal government, some 119,197 people in the city are engaged in trade and commerce; 113,977 in manufacturing and industry; 80,391 Homemakers of different variety; 71,186 in civil administration; 50,538 in transport and communication; 42,514 in education, health and social services; 32,685 in hotel and catering services; and 16,602 in agriculture. In addition to the residents of rural parts of Addis Ababa, the city dwellers also participate in animal husbandry and cultivation of gardens. 677 hectares (1,670 acres) of land is irrigated annually, on which 129,880 quintals of vegetables are cultivated.[citation needed] It is a relatively clean and safe city, with the most common crimes being pickpocketing, scams and minor burglary.The city has recently been in a construction boom with tall buildings rising in many places. Various luxury services have also become available and the construction of shopping malls has recently increased. According to Tia Goldenberg of IOL, area spa professionals said that some people have labelled the city, “the spa capital of Africa.”

Ethiopian Airlines has its headquarters on the grounds of Bole International Airport in Addis Ababa.

Addis Ababa has a subtropical highland climate with precipitation varying considerably by the month. The city has a complex mix of alpine climate zones, with temperature differences of up to 10 °C (18 °F), depending on elevation and prevailing wind patterns. The high elevation moderates temperatures year-round, and the city’s position near the equator means that temperatures are very constant from month to month. As such the climate would be maritime if its elevation was not taken into account, as no month is above 22 °C (72 °F) in mean temperatures.

Mid-November to January is a season for occasional rain. The highland climate regions are characterised by dry winters, and this is the dry season in Addis Ababa. During this season the daily maximum temperatures are usually not more than 23 °C (73 °F), and the night-time minimum temperatures can drop to freezing. The short rainy season is from February to May. During this period, the difference between the daytime maximum temperatures and the night-time minimum temperatures is not as great as during other times of the year, with minimum temperatures in the range of 10–15 °C (50–59 °F). At this time of the year, the city experiences warm temperatures and a pleasant rainfall. The long wet season is from June to mid-September; it is the major winter season of the country. This period coincides with summer, but the temperatures are much lower than at other times of year because of the frequent rain and hail and the abundance of cloud cover and fewer hours of sunshine. This time of the year is characterized by dark, chilly and wet days and nights. The autumn which follows is a transitional period between the wet and dry seasons.

The highest temperature on record was 30.6 °C (87.1 °F) 26 February 2019, while the lowest temperature on record was 0 °C (32 °F) recorded on multiple occasions

Addis Ababa University was founded in 1950 and was originally named “University College of Addis Ababa”, then renamed in 1962 for the former Ethiopian emperor Haile Selassie I who had donated his Genete Leul Palace to be the university’s main campus in the previous year. It is the home of the Institute of Ethiopian Studies and the Ethnological Museum. The city also has numerous public universities and private colleges including Addis Ababa Science and Technology University, Ethiopian Civil Service University, Admas University College, St. Mary’s University, Unity University, Kotebe Metropolitan University and Rift Valley University.
Public transport is through public buses from three different companies (Anbessa City Bus Service Enterprise, Sheger, Alliance), Light Rail or blue and white taxis. The taxis are usually minibuses that can seat at most twelve people, which follow somewhat pre-defined routes. The minibus taxis are typically operated by two people, the driver and a weyala who collects fares and calls out the taxi’s destination. Sedan taxis work like normal taxis, and are driven to the desired destination on demand. In recent years, new taxi companies have appeared, which uses other designs, including one large company using yellow sedan taxis.